cinétique VO2 1'/30''

Vvo2max

 

La "haute intensité" / cinétique de VO2

Analyse d'une séance de "temps limite de soutien" près du VO2max
=> la vitesse VO2max = "vVO2max"

Vo2 1 30

****************************

>>>>>>  Un constat 

Très souvent lorsque l'on aborde une réflexion sur l'entrainement sous forme de "fractionnés" arrive la notion de "V02max" c'est à dire le volume d'oxygène maximum possible exploitable par l'organisme

En réalité ce VO2 max est en quelque sorte "la cylindrée de notre organisme" pour autant ce n'est pas la donnée essentielle qui va directement calibrer l'intensité et la durée des fractionnés 
En bref ce n'est pas le bon indicateur pour fixer votre intensité d'effort


>>>>>> Pourquoi travailler à ce niveau d'intensité de vVO2max ?
une question d'économie d'énergie !

=> En se plaçant sur sa vitesse proche de la consommation maximale de VO2 on va augmenter sa puissance musculaire , ce qui aura pour effet indirect d'être beaucoup plus économe sur des régimes plus bas

=> L' effort correspondant à la vVO2 max aura un autre effet : celui d'optimiser la coordination neuromusculaire ce qui là encore réduira les coûts d'énergie.

 

>>>>>> Comment déterminez-vous votre vVO2 max?

très simple , prévoir deux test espacés de 48h de surcompensation

> test 1 
Etape 1 : sur une piste d’athlétisme de 400 m échauffement progressif , le finir sur le seuil 1 ( environ 75-80% de la Fc max)

Etape 2 : Démarrage du test par paliers.

Partir à 12 km/h (soit 2’ au 400m, 30’’ au 100m). 
courir 2’ à cette vitesse.

Etape 3 : on monte progressivement l'intensité par paliers approximatif de 2 mn et cela jusqu’au seuil 2anaérobie connu, 
Quand le seuil 2 est atteint repérer la vitesse 
(elle correspond approximativement à la vitesse d'un 10 km) et la conserver 1' puis passer à l'étape 4

Etape 4 : quand le seuil 2 est atteint on augmente la vitese jusqu’à ce que vous ne plus pouvoir plus accélérer. 
La fin, c’est quand vous êtes obligé de ralentir.
La vitesse maximale atteinte sur la dernière portion de 1’, c’est approximativement ta vVO2Max.
Idéalement placer des repères visuels (cône ou bouteilles d'eau) tous les 50m autour de la piste

> test 1 simplifié 
Après un échauffement progressif de qualité partez pour six minutes à bloc en donnant tout... et enregistrer la distance parcourue.

Il vous suffit ensuite d sorti votre calculette et hop vous allez sortir votre vitesse en mètres / seconde pour déterminer votre vVO2 max.

Illustration :
vous avez fait 1800m en 6 minutes (360 secondes) 
votre vVO2 max est de 1800 ÷ 360 = 5 mètres / seconde.

> test 2 : idem au test 1 après 48h de repos 
cette fois on utilisant la vitesse moyenne testé au premier test et en essayant de pousser un peu plus à partir de la 3e minute

*******************************

>>>>>> exploitations à l'entrainement

Très schématiquement on peut découper l'exploitation en 3 modélisations de séances : 
les classiques 30''/30''
la variantes 1'/1'
l'intervalle plus long 2'/1 3'/2' ou 3'/3'

>> le 30/30
30'' à 100% de la vVO2 du test 
suivi par 30'' de récupérer à 50% de vVO2 max 
Cette alternance temps fort/temps de relâchement est répétée aussi longtemps que les temps de 30'' peuvent être maintenu sur100% de la vVO2 max

indication en terme de distance 
Si on reprend mon exemple des 1800m en 6 minutes du test 
on va pouvoir courir 150m en 30'' 
le 30/30 va donc se découper en 150 mètres de temps forts suivi par 75 mètres en 30 secondes de relâchement . 
...et donc l'enchainement est répété jusqu'à ce que l'on ne peut plus maintenir les 150 mètres en 30 ''.

>> le 1'/1'  (et sa variante 1'/30''  :  cf photo de la séane présentée )
60 '' à 100% de max vVO2 
60 '' de récupérer 50% de vVO2 max 
Cette alternance temps fort/temps de relâchement est répétée aussi longtemps que les temps de 1' peuvent être maintenu sur 100% de la vVO2 max

indication en terme de distance 
Si on reprend mon exemple des 1800m en 6 minutes du test 
on va pouvoir courir 300m en 1' suivi par 150 mètres en 30 secondes de relâchement .

>> le 3'/3'
3 minutes à 100% de max vVO2 (donc environ 900m sur l'exemple donné
3 minutes récupérer 
Cet enchaînement se répète aussi longtemps que les 3 minutes à 100% vVO2 max peuvent être maintenues 
on peut aussi se baser sur une perspective de 5 répétitions

 

>>>>>> Les facteurs limitant la durée du "tlim VO2max"

Les raisons physiologiques de la variabilité de la valeur du temps limite à vVO2max sont dépendantes de la capacité de résistance à la montée des ions H+ produit pendant l'effort du sportif et du potentiel du débit cardiaque .
>> la résistance à la charge des ions H+
(ce que l'on appelle parfois "charge lactique" bien qu'aujourd'hui l'acide lactique ne soit plus franchement considéré comme marqueur de fatigue musculaire )

Il est évident qu'il existe une étroite corrélation entre cette vitesse qui impose une forte production d'ions H+ ( métabolisme anaérobie lactique ) et la capacité à soutenir un fort pourcentage de la consommation maximale d'oxygène

>> le potentiel du débit cardiaque
Nous savons que, dans le cadre de la fonction cardiovasculaire, le débit cardiaque est un des principaux facteurs limitatifs du VO2max

*******************************

>>>>>> sources de réflexion :
les travaux de Véronique Billat et ceux de Di Pramero

Véronique BILLAT
"la VO2 max à l'épreuve du temps" ,
édition DE BOECK

Di Pramero
"Sprint running: a new energetic approach"
éditon J Exp Biol

*******************************

>> des infos complémentaires sur cette notion la notion de cinétique de VO2 ; ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/la-cinetique-d-o2.html

>> des infos sur la notion de Tlim VO2max , ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/le-tlim-vo2max-une-nouvelle-approche-du-fractionne.html

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