doser les entrainements

 

Dosage entrainement

Comment mesurer et doser la charge de ses entrainements ?

Reproduire sempiternellement la même séance sur un terrain parfaitement similaire peut conduite à une fatigue sournoise puisque l'organisme va se retrouver toujours confronté à la même difficulté à surmonter .

>>>
Rappel :
Les deux principales sources du surentrainement sont :
un trop fort cumul de charge d'une séance à l'autre et on l'oublie un peu aussi ...la monotonie des séances !

=> info sur le surentrainement , ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/le-surentrainement.html

>>>
varier les types de terrains
Il est important de varier les types de terrains afin de solliciter les diverses filières de contractions .
L'alternance montée/descente mettra en jeu des contractions concentriques et excentriques ( en zone urbaine , les montées d'escaliers seront tout à fait interessantes pour transformer une séance trottoir en un fartlek amusant ....

>>>
Il s'agira aussi de varier les types de foulée , les types d'allures , notamment lorsque l'on se prépare pour une épreuve d'endurance en milieu "nature" la foulée sur le marathon du Mont Blanc n'est pas franchement la même que celle sur les 42km du marathon de Berlin !!

>>>>
Savoir écouter sa fatigue autrement que par ses sensations !!!
Le surentrainement est un mal sournois qui peut venir sans que l'on s'en aperçoive.....
Un athlète s'imposant des charges importantes ne peut se satisfaire de ses seules sensations !
Après 25 ans d'expérience je reste vraiment très prudent sur les sportifs qui me disent très sûr d'eux :
"je me connais parfaitement bien !"
( désolé mais c'est à ce propos très souvent un discours "de mec" ...)

Ce n'est quand même pas anodin de se dire que plus de 65% des athlètes d’endurance connaissent le surentraînement au cours de leur vie sportive .
( cf travaux de Morgan en 1987)

>>>>
Comment évaluer la charge d'un entrainement ?
Il existe plusieurs méthodes pour déterminer la charge d'une séance d'entrainement .

Une des plus simples est de prendre en compte la durée de l'effort multipliée par le degré de difficulté perçue .

charge de l'entrainement = durée x coefficient de difficulté perçue

Pour le degré de difficulté on va utiliser l'échelle de graduation suivante ( échelle de Borg (voir ma note en bas sur la spécifié avec les enfants)

On attribue un indice par niveau de difficulté perçue
>> 0,5 = extrêmement faible,
>> 1 = très faible,
>> 2 = faible,
> 3 = modérée,
>> 5 = forte,
>> 7 = très forte,
>> 10 = extrêmement forte " douleur max ",
>> 11 = maximum absolu.

>>>>>
Illustrations avec deux exemples :
> une séance d'1h 30 perçue en niveau 5 aura un niveau de charge de 450
90 x 5 = 450 points de charge .

> une séance de 2h perçue en niveau 3 aura un niveau de charge de : 360
120 x 3 = 360 points de charge

>>>>
Savoir analyser ses charges

Illustration sur deux exemples de semaine à 5 entrainements /semaine

>>> semaine A très monotone
séance 1 : 315 charge ( 1h 45 en niveau 3)
séance 2 : 300 charge ( 2h 30 en niveau 2)
séance 3 : 405 charge ( 2h15 en niveau 3)
séance 4 : 300 charge (1h en niveau 5 )
séance 5 : 360 charge ( 2h en niveau 3)

analyse de la semaine : moyenne de charge : 336
Une forte monotonie (très peu d'écart de charge d'un jour à l'autre , on est toujours proche de la moyenne )
Ce type se semaine ne permettra pas la mise en place d'une vraie progression par des phases de surcompensation
..... et pourtant le charges ne sont pas perçues comme extrêmes par le coureur (maxi 5) mais elles sont toutes très proches d'une séance à l'autre

=> info sur la surcompensation ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/la-surcompensation-pourquoi-comment.html

>>> semaine B (semaine variée intéressante)
on note une progressivité sur les 3 premiers jours puis une rupture de récupération sur la séance 4
Séance 1 : 280 charge + ( 2h 20 en niveau 2)
séance 2 : 330 charge ++ ( 55 mn en niveau 6)
séance 3 : 520 charge +++ très forte ( 1h 44 en niveau 5) 1270
séance 4 : 140 charge faible ( 2h 20 en niveau 1)
séance 5 : 410 charge ++ ( 2h 16 en niveau 3)

La moyenne : la même que pour la semaine A : 336 ...et pourtant cela n'a rien à voir !!!!
> Les écarts sont très importants de charge d'un jour à l'autre /
> L'athlète est toujours souvent loin de la moyenne en dehors de la séance 2
> les phases de surcompensation pourront se mettre en place

>>>>>
Cas particulier avec les enfants
L’échelle de perception de l’effort de Borg, pertinente chez l’adulte, ne l'est pas avec un enfant ou un adolescent. Les enfants manquent d’expérience physique et de conscience des différents niveaux d’intensité pour comprendre le concept de perception de l’effort .
On pourra alors passer à une représentation imagée ( échelle de William )

>>>>>>>>
Sources citées :

> Morgan W.P. (1987)
" Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness."
édition : Br J Sports Med,
Morgan et O'Connor ont mené cette étude à la marge de leurs travaux sur le “profil de l’humeur” de nageuses féminins Elite

> E. Borg (2005)
A comparison between three rating scales for perceived exertion and two different work tests
édition : scandinavian journal of medecine & science in sports

> Williams JG, (1994) => échelle de perception pour les enfants et ados
"a perceived exertion scale for young children."
édition Percept Mot Skills

Autre source sur le sujet : les travaux de Foster
Foster C. (1998)
"Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome"
édition : Med Sci Sport Exerc

Charge foster calcul 1

Charge foster calcul 2

2 votes. Moyenne 5.00 sur 5.

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