échauffement vélo

E chauffement cyclisme

L'ECHAUFFEMENT VELO
> Pour les séances intensives
PMA (puissance maximale aérobie) ou cinétique de VO2 ou vitesse
> Pour les courses de vélo

****************************************

Un échauffement vélo comprend 3 phases :

>>>>>>> 1. La mise en route
> 20 à 25'
> boisson dite "d'attente" (maison ou commerce) avec un index glycémique modérée

objectif visé : la montée en température de l'organisme ( le faire passer de 36° à 39° environ)
TRES PROGRESSIF pour ne pas favoriser une montée trop rapide de l'acidose et de l'accumulation des fameux ions H+ (les vilains qui vous bloquent la fluidité de la contraction musculaire avec le fameux phénomène des "jambes dures")

L'occasion à cette première étape d'aller reconnaitre ou revoir les premiers kilomètres de courses (important si celles-ci est d'entrée nerveuse)

A cette étape on est très véloce et souple ( tour de pédale par minute de 90-95 voir 100)
aucune montée au dessus du seuil 1 (très schématiquement maxi 75-80% de la Fc max )

****************************************

>>>>>>> 2. le déblocage neuromusculaire et des commandes du système nerveux
> 20'
> boisson dite "d'attente" (maison ou commerce) avec un index glycémique modérée
A cette étape on va sensiblement augmenter la vascularisation , provoquer une augmentation marquée du débit sanguin

un exemple parmi tant d'autres :
2 blocs de :
4’ sur le seuil 1
suivi de 2’ sur le palier 3 (entre les deux seuils )
suivi de 1' sur le seuil 2

entre les deux blocs 3 à 5’ en aérobie strict au palier 2

on termine par 2-3 sprints hyper-explosifs de 5 à 7'' tout à la fin (récup entre 1')

*******
Pour simplifier les choses et de manière très schématique ( à valider avec un test d'effort )
palier 1 : en dessous de 65% de FC max
palier 2 : entre 65 et 80% de la FC max
seuil 1 : souvent entre 80 et 85% de la FC max
palier 3 : entre le seuil1 et le seuil 2
seuil 2 : souvent entre 90 et 93 % de la FC max
palier 4 : entre le seuil 2 et la FC max

On peut travailler sur des paliers plus précis
( cf les travaux de Frédéric GRAPPE ; puissance et performance en cyclisme , édition de Boeck )

info ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/les-zones-d-intensites-de-fc.html

****************************************

>>>>>>> 3. la phase de surcompensation
on quitte le collant par temps frais ou froid et/où on enfile sa tenue de course ; puis
> 10 à 15'
> 250 ml d'une boisson classique de l'effort (maison ou commerce) avec un index glycémique un peu plus élevé que la boisson prise sur les phases 1 et 2
A cette phase on amorce la montée progressive de la glycémie et on va replacer le coeur sur un tempo proche des 65% de Fc max
très souple en fréquence de pédalage sans aller sur de l'hypervélocité
( tour de pédale par minute de 85-95 )

************************************

Pour les cyclosportives :
En dehors de la ligne Elite , la démarche est un peu différente compte tenu de la longue attente sur la ligne de départ ...
Il est souvent impossible d'aller rouler 30' et cal 15' avant le départ .
Il peut donc s'avérer utile dans ce cas de procéder à quelques exercices toujours très progressif type celui de la gestuelle du test du Ruffier 10 minutes avant le départ .
Idéalement, arriver un peu en avance et placer son vélo près d'une barrière à l'intérieur du sa d'attente puis trottiner le long des barrières est une démarche que je qualifierai de pertinente ;-)

*******************************

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