hypervélocité

 

Hyperve locite

Pour toutes celles et ceux qui font du vélo :
l'hypervélocité : un entrainement à ne pas négliger


>>>>>
Il est parfois utile de rappeler des évidences :
Pédaler efficacement c’est de manière certaine être performant sur sa manière de pédaler .
Bien sûr cela exige de la force pour appuyer sur les pédales mais aussi trouver la bonne vitesse pour tourner les jambes :
ce que l’on appelle la vélocité.

Alors que beaucoup de cyclistes parlent de puissance il convient de rappeler que la dite puissance est le produit de la vélocité et de la force exercée sur la pédale
Puissance = vélocité x Force

Développer sa puissance c’est donc agir sur ces deux paramètres :
Pour faire court pour progresser il faut acquérir de la force par du renforcement musculaire (sur vélo ou hors vélo) et de la vélocité

Un débat, digne d'une tempête dans un verre d'eau, existe  sur le sens porté au mot "force" , parfois cela tourne à des polémiques totalement ridicules  car bien évidemment dans le cadre d'un sport d'endurance la qualité a optimiser reste prioritiarement ce que l'on appelle l'endurance de force  et en aucun ca la force dite explosive !!!!

=> des infos sur cette endurance de force , avec notamment une réponse aux idées reçues sur le niveau de FC à adopter sur ces séances : 

http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/l-end.html

 

>>>>>
Favoriser un haut niveau oxygénation

Au delà de l’aspect développement de la puissance , une fréquence de pédalage élevée va imposer à l’organisme une forte consommation d’oxygène qui se repère facilement par une forte élevation de la Fc au cours des exercices d’hypervélocité .

Ce constat se fait indépendemment de la force exercée sur les pédales . Plusieurs études ont été réalisées sur le sujet je pense en particulier à celle de Charavven qui a travaillé sur le coût de l’oxygène en liée à la fréquence de pédalage et l'influence de la vitesse de pédalage sur l'efficacité en vélo de route
(en trail on appellerai cela le coefficient énergétique )

En résumé ce chercheur a montré à partir de quatre fréquences de pédalage test (60, 80, 100 et 120 rpm) et des intensités variables que le coût énergétique en consommation d’oxygène est toujours plus faible lorsque l'exercice est effectué à 60 tours par minute.


>>>>>
Favoriser les messages nerveux moteurs
Tous les muscles qui entraînent les mouvements, sont des organes dits "effecteurs" . Ils se contractent de façon coordonnée suite à la réception d'un message nerveux moteurs, émis par les centres nerveux.

Plus les nerfs sont efficients plus ils assureront efficacement la communication entre les organes et les centres nerveux.

S’entrainer en hypervléocité est une forme dérivée de la classique proprioception .
En effet cela va provoquer des modifications sur le plan nerveux (en particulier au niveau de la moelle épinière qui est l’organe de transmission incontournable de l’information qui descendra vers nos jambes pour les faire tourner

L’hypervélocité développera des perceptions sur notre façon de pédaler ( on les appelle perceptions « sensori-motrices » ) .

Un seul exemple : en pédalant très vite vous allez très vite vous rendre comptr que sansune concentrartiuon importante vous allez très vite partir sur un déhanchement totalement parasite .

L’hypervélocité renforcera le contrôle de votre posture en développant une sensibilité (à la fois consciente et non conciente ) sur l’ensemble des nombreux récepteurs musculaires et ligamentaires intervenant sur le pédalage


>>>>>
L'hypervélocité au service de l’endurance de force
l'hypervélocité est pertinente lorsqu'elle est couplée à une séance d'endurance de force.
Elle aura un double effet positif :

➢ tout d’abord elle va faciliter la décrispation des fibres musculaires mobilisées pendant l’exercice (fibres type I rouges) en mobilisant prioritairement de nouvelles fibres (fibres type II blanches)
(cf les travaux de Foss sur le sujet)

➢ Elle va ensuite favorisant une forte oxygénation … et donc une rapide évacuation des ions H+ produit pendant ‘effort d’endurance de force


>>>>>
en pratique
La vélocité est donc votre capacité à tourner les jambes à une certaine fréquence.
On va dire pour faire court que la plupart des cyclosportifs tournent les jambes autour de 75-80 tours/ minute (tpm) sur le plat et 55-60 tpm en cote.
En hypervélocité on travaillera sur des temps très courts :
Cela peut aller du sprint de 10'' à une durée de 1'30 à 2'
avec un tpm au delà de 100 lorsque l'on débute ce type d'exercice , et pouvant aller à des rpm de 150 voir plus pour un Elite

Afin de laisser les fibres reprendront leur souffle on laisserai entre chaque intervalle une durée suffisante .
exemple (à ne pas prendre à la lettre car je ne connais pas de clone type d'un cycliste parfait !!)

> 8 à 10 x 45'' en hypervélocité / récup 2'15'' très souple sur un rpm proche de celui que l'on a pour habitude d'utiliser

ou encore répartir sur une sortie en zone 1 aérobie strict des très courts sprints (appelés "sprints pancarte" dans le jargon cycliste) de 10'' à 15'' maxi


>>>>>

sources citées

> Chavarren (1999)
Cycling efficiency and pedalling frequency in road cyclists.
édition : Eur J Appl Physiol

> Foss (2004)
The most economical cadence increases with increasing workload
source
édition : Eur J Appl Physiol

4 votes. Moyenne 3.50 sur 5.

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