les foulées du traiteur

La spécifité du traileur : savoir courir et marcher !

Un terrain imposant la marche et la course : à prendre en compte dans ses entrainements ....

  • Un traileur est avant tout un "amoureux" des terrains natures ; son terrain de prédilection et ses courses sont fort éloignés des pistes d'athlétisme et des longues lignes droites goudronnées ou l'on recherche avant tout sur des heures durant  la foulée ample et régulière
  • Le trail   impose 2 modes de locomotion : la course et la marche (avec deux options possibles : avec ou sans bâton)
  • A chaque mode de locomotion sa dynamique musculaire et donc une spécificuté dans les muscles sollicités

 

>> La marche ( qui se met en place en toute logique sur pente raide)

Sans bâton la marche sur très forte pente  exige un buste penché vers l'avant avec une dynamique de la main qui va favoriser la poussée de la jambe en s'appuyant fortement sur la cuisse.

Cette dynamique mécanique impose un travail relativement peu excentrique des fibres musculaires : pour faire court , sur les fortes montées l'allongement des fibres sur la marche sera beaucoup  moins marquée  que sur les foulées amples en course à pied sur un terrain plat ou faiblement vallonné .

Plus les montées seront   raides en Trail, plus la production de la force à développer se réalisera à partir du raccourcissement du muscle ce qui va se traduire par une répétition de contractions musculaires à dominante concentrique .

Quels sont les muscles mobilisés sur une forte pente ?

Les muscles recrutés seront prioritairement :

  • les muscles extenseurs de la hanche : demi-membraneux , les demi-tendineux et le grand fessier
  • les muscles du mollet ( jumeaux et solaires)
  • les muscles extenseurs du genou (le quadriceps) Situé dans une perspective d’optimisation de la performance, 

 

intérêt des bâtons sur les très fortes pentes 

Un des intérêts majeur des bâtons sera de maintenir  une bonne  ouverture  de la cage thoracique avec un buste moins cassé sur l'avant  offrant ainsi de par sa position et ses appuis latéraux, une plus grande amplitude pulmonaire et une plus forte oxygénation.Cette position aura pour avantage d'augmenter naturellement la  durée des échange gazeux CO2/O2 avec pour conséquence une meilleure oxygenation sanguine.

>> La course 

Sur les temps de course , on va rechercher l'amplitude et la souplesse   , la foulée devient plus ample , la hanche monte moins , le genou par moins sur l'arrière ... le travail des fessiers est donc réduit , en revanche l'alllongement des fibre est plus important 

 

Varier les types de sollicitations musculaires 

>>  par le type de pente :  

Il est donc indispensable qu'un traileur recherchant la performance s'entrainent sur ces diffférentes sollicitation musculaires...  d'où l'intéret à varier les terrains plat , pente modérée et très forte pente avec ou sans bâton.

>> par le type de foulées :   

>  les grandes enjambées sur terrain plat avec une extension du genou pour renforcer l'extension des fibres

 

> les enjambées plus courtes sur terrain très pentu (sans bâton) , moins orientées sur l'extension des fibres, elles seront en revanche  beaucoup plus sollicitatrices des mucles des fessiers .

 

Des entrainements multifilières par le fartlek "adaptation au terrain"

> Le fartlek est traditionnellement exploitée pour varier  en mode "feeling" les allures en terme de fréquence cardiaque

>  Pour un traileur il est aussi interessant d'envisager le fartlek sur sa variante sollicitation musculaire.  

  • Dans ce cas de figure , le terrain recherché sera le plus variée possible en terme de % de pente pour alterner les temps où l'on va rechercher l'amplitude de la foulée avec de grandes enjambées et ceux ou par nécessité la foulée va devoir se réduire. 
  • La dominante de l'intensité cardio vasculaire sera centrée sur le palier 2 autour de la zone aérobie "stricte" des 75%-80% de la Fc max 

 

La possibilité de combiner la sortie  avec un travail de tempos spécifiques sur les descentes

Sur ce type de fartlek il sera interessant de combiner la sortie en plaçant sur les descentes des  fractionnés  courts mais très rapides (30'' à 1' ) alternés avec des temps de relachement correspondant à minima au double du fractionné ( sur une longue descente  enchainer 10 x 1'/2')

 

Palier 3 et casse de fibre

 

 

1 vote. Moyenne 5.00 sur 5.

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