pliométrie et trail

 

 

TRAILEURS, TRAILEUSES éloigné-e-s des montagnes

Ceci est ESSENTIEL pour vous !!!!

****************

Voila un travail avec deux objectifs :

>>>>>>
1. Travailler sa coordination et sa dynamique neuromotrice :
.... ce que l'usage populaire appelle "avoir des réflexes", indispensable pour optimiser ses qualités de descendeurs en trail

>>>>>>
2. mettre en place une préfatigue musculaire

Cette séquence basée sur de la pliométrie, de 5 à 10', est intéressante avant une séance d'endurance de force pour mobiliser les fibres musculaires .

Avant ce travail réaliser 10 minutes d'échauffement classique ( footing ou en salle tapis ou vélo elliptique ou HT) pour progressivement monter au seuil 1 ( autour des 75% de la Fc max)

=>> la pré-fatigue c'est quoi ?

La réalisation d’un exercice préalable conduit en effet à un plus grand recrutement des fibres lentes lors du second exercice et par là même rduit alors le besoin d’un recrutement additionnel de fibres rapides.

Un des moyens les plus simples est de consacrer un court temps de 5 à 10' par la réalisation d’un exercice préalable dit "exercice antérieur".

Cet exercice aura un double objectif :

1. Conduire à un plus grand recrutement des fibres lentes lors du second exercice.
Pourquoi ce phénomène ?
Les fibres lentes (type I) qui servent majoritairement lors des efforts d’endurance car liées au métabolisme aérobie sont très fortement vascularisées.
L'exercice antérieur va optimiser cette vascularisation sur l'exercice suivant et permettre le plein rendement de ces fibres.
Cela aura alors pour effet direct de réduire alors le besoin d’un recrutement supplémentaire de fibres rapides.

2. Augmenter le niveau d’acidose dans les tissus musculaires.
Cette augmentation modérée a avoir pour effet d'engendrer au début de la seconde séance une vasodilatation au niveau musculaire.
La conséquence de cette vasodilatation est de booster l' apport d’O2 aux muscles sur la 2ème séance.

Explication :
Sur les efforts de la séance 1 de l'exercice antérieur les tissus musculaires en consommant de l'oxygène vont développer de l’acidose.
Cet acidose tissulaire va limiter la fixation de l'oxygène au niveau pulmonaire, indirectement cela favorisera la libération d’O2.

Pardon si je ne suis pas très clair, pour ceux et celles qui voudraient en savoir plus le mécanisme est complexe, il fait intervenir le dioxyde de gaz carbonique, il est très bien expliqué dans l'ouvrage de vulgarisation de physiologie humaine appliquée de Claude Martin.

Alexandre MARLES dans sa thèse de doctorat (2007) aborde en profondeur ce sujet. Il montre notamment tout l'intérêt de la réalisation d’un exercice de pré-fatigue (il appelle cela l'exercice "antérieur"), exercice qui se place avant la mise en place d'un travail aérobie.

Cela est d'autant plus interessant si on ne dispose que 30 à 40' pour optimiser la phase cardio indoor en mode aérobie sur HT ou elliptique ou rameur ou tapis.

Dans ce cas de figure il est intéressant de faire précéder la séance par exemple avec une courte séance de renforcement musculaire réalisée avec une bonne mobilisation de la FC (par exemple)/

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Sources :

> Claude Martin
Physiologie humaine appliquée
Édition Arnette, 2006.

> Alexandre MARLES
Thèse de doctorat :
"Le phénomène d’Extra O2 et la cinétique de l’oxygénation musculaire"
Université D'Artois.

Alexandre MARLES dans sa thèse de doctorat (2007) aborde en profondeur les adaptations centrales induites par l’entraînement de type aérobie (amélioration du transport d’O2 par le système cardiovasculaire).

D'autres éléments d'informations ; ici :
http://www.diet-sport-coach.com/pages/content/info-entrainement/la-prefatigue.html

5 votes. Moyenne 4.20 sur 5.

Commentaires (76)

1. Vincent Volcke 15/02/2016

Bonjour,

Intéressante cette séance. MAIS pour vous, quand devra avoir lieu la 2ème séance ?
Immédiatement après ?
Dans la même journée ?
2 ou 3 jours après ?

Merci.

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