échauffement

 E chauffement

Rapppel :

Il est bon de revenir parfois à l'essentiel : la phase d'échauffement consiste à .... s'échauffer !!

Eh oui lorsque l'on chausse ses baskets , lorsque l'on monte sur son vélo, sur ses skis l'organisme est la plupart du temps en mode "cool" , on est dans une situation d'inertie qui va demander un certain délai d'action pour se mettre en route .

Ce délai d'action correspond à une montée en température ... d'où le nom d'échauffement !!

>>> une montée en température des muscles et tendons
Au repos, la température des muscles et des tendons est assez proche des 36°C.
Hors c'est à 39°C que les muscles et tendons seront à leur rendement optimum.
C'est cette augmentation de la température qui va permettre une augmentation de la souplesse musculaire accompagnée d'une augmentation de l’élasticité des tendons grâce notamment à l’augmentation du liquide synovial qui est en quelque sorte un lubrifiant

>>> une montée en température du système nerveux
Le système nerveux a un fonctionnement optimum entre 38° et 39°.
Il est utile de se rappeler qu'un muscle ne travaille que sous l'effet d' impulsions électriques commandés par le système nerveux qui regroupe l’ensemble des circuits de coordination de contrôle et de commande
Une augmentation de 2°C de la température centrale entraîne une accélération de la vitesse de contraction de 20%.

>>> une montée en température qui va favoriser l'exploitation rapide du glycogène musculaire (carburant du muscle au début de l'effort)

**********************

Ne pas confondre Température musculaire et la température dite "centrale"
Par temps très chaud c'est un vrai dilemme , il est utile de procéder à l'échauffement musculaire sans aller sur la surchauffe du système nerveux .

A titre anecdotique car difficile à mettre en place , au JO de Pekins certaines équipes avaient potées pour des vestes réfrigérantes pendant l'échauffement des athlètes

Des études sont venus apportés du crédit à cette technique notamment celle de Sigurbjorn
source :
Sigurbjorn (2004)
Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5km run performance in the heat
édition : J Apple Physiol

*********************

>>>>>>>> un échauffement en 3 phases

étape 1 :  du système cardio-vasculaire (circulation sanguine) à l'effort.
on par sur une intensité en dessous du seui 1 aérobie autour des 60-65% de la Fc max : totale aisance respiratoire, aucun essoufflement .
Cette phase doit durer un minimum de 10 minutes. (7' en indoor)

étape 2 : l' échauffement neuromoteur ,

je vous conseille par exemple 3 x 1' à 1'30'' de jumping Jack qui est un exercice très complet principalement utilisé pour chauffer les muscles et les préparer à l'effort.

 

Les athlètes de stade mettent souvent en place les fameuses gammes sur cette période


 

étape 3 : la haute intensité
Cette 3e phase est malheureusement trop rarement mise en place !
Elle consiste à réaliser un échauffement dit en "haute intensité" pour favoriser la montée du VO2 consommé et démarrer le travail spécifique avec un haut niveau d'oxygénation

Afin de limiter une trop forte et top rapide accumulation des ions H+ (qui se développent parallèlement à la montée de la charge lactique) il s'agira d'être TRES PROGRESSIF pour venir se caler à la fin de cette étape à minima sur le palier 3 ( schématiquement seuil 1 + 4 à 5 puls)
on va donc se placer, toujours schématiquement autour des 85% de la FC max sur la fin de ce 2e temps

Différentes études ont montré le bénéfice de cette 3 e phase d'échauffement à haute intensité notamment lors des séances où l'objectif visé sera de maintenir le plus longtemps possible par des intervalles appropriés le plus haut niveau d'oxygénation ( séances dites aussi de "cinétique de VO2" )

source :
> Dorado C, Sanchis-Moysi J, Calbert JAL
"Effets of recovery mode on performance, O2 uptake, and O2 deficit during hight intensity intermittent exercice."
édition : Can Appl Physiol

> Jones AM
"Prior Heavy exercice enhance performance during subsequent Perimaximal exercice"
édition : Med Sci sports (2003)

1 vote. Moyenne 5.00 sur 5.

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